Print a stack trace of running processes
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/*
pstack.c -- asynchronous stack trace of a running process
Copyright (c) 1999 Ross Thompson
Copyright (c) 2001, 2003 Red Hat, Inc.
Original Author: Ross Thompson <ross@whatsis.com>
Critical bug fix: Tim Waugh
*/
/*
This file is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
*/
/* RESTRICTIONS:
pstack currently works only on Linux, only on an x86 machine running
32 bit ELF binaries (64 bit not supported). Also, for symbolic
information, you need to use a GNU compiler to generate your
program, and you can't strip symbols from the binaries. For thread
information to be dumped, you have to use the debug-aware version
of libpthread.so. (To check, run 'nm' on your libpthread.so, and
make sure that the symbol "__pthread_threads_debug" is defined.)
*/
#include <sys/ptrace.h>
#include <asm/ptrace.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include <sys/user.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <link.h>
#include <malloc.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <limits.h>
/*************************************
* Architecture dependant code *
*************************************/
/* Word size */
#if __WORDSIZE == 64
#define uintN_t uint64_t
#define ElfN_Ehdr Elf64_Ehdr
#define ElfN_Shdr Elf64_Shdr
#define ElfN_Addr Elf64_Addr
#define ElfN_Sym Elf64_Sym
#define ElfN_Dyn Elf64_Dyn
#define ElfN_Off Elf64_Off
#define ELFCLASSN ELFCLASS64
#define ELFN_ST_TYPE ELF64_ST_TYPE
#define INT_RANGE_STR "64"
#else
#define uintN_t uint32_t
#define ElfN_Ehdr Elf32_Ehdr
#define ElfN_Shdr Elf32_Shdr
#define ElfN_Addr Elf32_Addr
#define ElfN_Sym Elf32_Sym
#define ElfN_Dyn Elf32_Dyn
#define ElfN_Off Elf32_Off
#define ELFCLASSN ELFCLASS32
#define ELFN_ST_TYPE ELF32_ST_TYPE
#define INT_RANGE_STR "32"
#endif
/* Endianness */
#ifdef __ORDER_LITTLE_ENDIAN__
#define ELF_EI_DATA ELFDATA2LSB
#define ELF_ENDIANNESS_ERRSTR "big"
#elif defined(__ORDER_BIG_ENDIAN__)
#define ELF_EI_DATA ELFDATA2MSB
#define ELF_ENDIANNESS_ERRSTR "little"
#else
#include <endian.h>
#if __BYTE_ORDER == __LITTLE_ENDIAN
#define ELF_EI_DATA ELFDATA2LSB
#define ELF_ENDIANNESS_ERRSTR "big"
#else
#define ELF_EI_DATA ELFDATA2MSB
#define ELF_ENDIANNESS_ERRSTR "little"
#endif
#endif
/* Machine dependant: ELF machine name, registers name and stack layout */
#if defined(__i386__) || defined(__x86_64__)
#if defined(__i386__) /* x86-32 */
#define ELF_MACHINE EM_386
#define PROGRAM_COUNTER(regs) (regs.eip)
#define FRAME_POINTER(regs) (regs.ebp)
#else /* x86-64 */
#define ELF_MACHINE EM_X86_64
#define PROGRAM_COUNTER(regs) (regs.rip)
#define FRAME_POINTER(regs) (regs.rbp)
#endif /* x86-{32,64} */
#define NEXT_FRAME_POINTER_ADDR(fp) (fp)
#define NEXT_PROGRAM_COUNTER_ADDR(fp) ((fp) + __SIZEOF_POINTER__)
#define DECLARE_REGS_STRUCT(regs) struct user_regs_struct regs
#define VDSO_NAME "linux-vdso.so.1"
#elif defined(__ARMEL__) /* armel */
#define ELF_MACHINE EM_ARM
#define PROGRAM_COUNTER(regs) (regs.ARM_pc)
#define FRAME_POINTER(regs) (regs.ARM_fp)
#define NEXT_FRAME_POINTER_ADDR(fp) ((fp) - __SIZEOF_POINTER__)
#define NEXT_PROGRAM_COUNTER_ADDR(fp) (fp)
#define DECLARE_REGS_STRUCT(regs) struct user_regs regs
#define VDSO_NAME ""
#elif defined(__ppc64__) || defined(__alpha__) || defined(__ia64__) || defined(s390x__)
#error Not (yet) supported architecture, patches welcomes :-)
#else
#error Not (yet) recognized architecture, patches welcomes :-)
#endif
#define NB_ARGS(fp, nextfp) \
(((nextfp) - (fp) - (2 * __SIZEOF_POINTER__)) / __SIZEOF_POINTER__)
#define ARG_NMBR(fp, i) ((fp) + __SIZEOF_POINTER__ * ((i) + 1))
#define NB_ARGS_REMAINING(fp, nextfp, nargs) \
((nextfp) - (fp) - (2 * __SIZEOF_POINTER__) - \
(__SIZEOF_POINTER__ * nargs))
/***************************************
* Architecture independant code *
***************************************/
static pid_t thePid; /* pid requested by caller. */
static struct {
int found;
pid_t *pids; /* pid[0] is dad, pid[1] is manager */
int *attached; /* pid[i] is attached? 1 = yes, 0 = no */
int npids;
} threads;
/* ------------------------------ */
static int attach(pid_t pid)
{
int status;
errno = 0;
if (-1 == ptrace(PTRACE_ATTACH, pid, 0, 0))
return errno;
/* If we failed due to an ECHILD, then retry with the __WCLONE
flag. Note we loop as the the PID we get back may not be
one we care about. */
if (-1 == waitpid(pid, &status, WUNTRACED) && errno == ECHILD) {
pid_t x;
while (1) {
x = waitpid (-1, &status, (__WCLONE));
if (x == pid || x < 0) break;
}
if (x) errno = 0;
}
return errno;
}
static int detachall(void)
{
int i;
/* First detach from all the threads, except the one we initially
attached to. Note that the PTRACE_DETACH will continue the
thread, so there is no need to issue a separate PTRACE_CONTINUE
call. */
if (threads.found) {
for (i = 0; i < threads.npids; i++) {
if (threads.pids[i] != thePid && threads.attached[i]) {
if (-1==ptrace(PTRACE_DETACH, threads.pids[i], 0, 0)) {
perror("detach");
}
}
}
}
/* Now attach from the thread we initially attached to. Note that
the PTRACE_DETACH will continue the thread, so there is no need
is issue a separate PTRACE_CONTINUE call. */
if (-1 == ptrace(PTRACE_DETACH, thePid, 0, 0)) {
perror("detach");
return errno;
}
return 0;
}
static void handle_signal (int signum)
{
signal (signum, SIG_DFL);
psignal (signum, "pstack signal received");
if (thePid) detachall();
exit (1);
}
static void quit(char *msg)
{
fputs(msg, stderr);
fputc('\n', stderr);
if (thePid) detachall();
exit(1);
}
/* ------------------------------ */
static ElfN_Addr DebugInfo;
typedef struct _t_Symbols {
struct _t_Symbols *next;
char *name;
ElfN_Sym *symbols;
int nsyms;
char *strings;
int strslen, noffsets;
ElfN_Addr baseAddr;
ElfN_Dyn *dynamic;
int ndyns;
} *Symbols;
static Symbols allSyms;
static Symbols newSyms(const char *name)
{
Symbols syms = (Symbols) calloc(sizeof(struct _t_Symbols), 1);
if (!syms) quit("Out of memory");
syms->next = allSyms;
allSyms = syms;
syms->name = strdup(name);
return syms;
}
static void deleteSyms(Symbols syms)
{
Symbols s2;
if (syms == allSyms) allSyms = syms->next;
else {
for (s2 = allSyms; s2 && s2->next != syms; s2 = s2->next);
if (s2) s2->next = syms->next;
}
if (syms->symbols) free(syms->symbols);
if (syms->strings) free(syms->strings);
if (syms->dynamic) free(syms->dynamic);
if (syms->name) free(syms->name);
free(syms);
}
static const ElfN_Sym *lookupSymInTable(const char *name, Symbols syms)
{
ElfN_Sym *sym;
int i;
for (i = 0, sym = syms->symbols; i < syms->nsyms; i++, sym++) {
if (!strcmp(name, &syms->strings[sym->st_name]))
return sym;
}
return 0;
}
static void findCodeAddress(ElfN_Addr addr, ElfN_Sym **ans,
Symbols *symtab)
{
ElfN_Sym *sym;
Symbols tab;
int i;
for (tab = allSyms, *ans = 0, *symtab = 0; tab; tab = tab->next) {
if (addr < tab->baseAddr) continue;
for (sym = tab->symbols, i = 0; i < tab->nsyms; i++, sym++) {
if (sym->st_value <= addr && sym->st_shndx != SHN_UNDEF &&
sym->st_shndx < tab->noffsets &&
ELFN_ST_TYPE(sym->st_info) == STT_FUNC &&
(!*ans || (*ans)->st_value < sym->st_value))
*ans = sym, *symtab = tab;
}
}
}
/* ------------------------------ */
static void resetData(void)
{
Symbols syms, ns;
if (threads.pids) free(threads.pids);
if (threads.attached) free(threads.attached);
threads.pids = 0;
threads.attached = 0;
threads.found = 0;
for (syms = allSyms; syms; syms = ns) {
ns = syms->next;
deleteSyms(syms);
}
}
/* ------------------------------ */
static const ElfN_Sym *findLocalSym(const char *name, Symbols syms)
{
const ElfN_Sym *sym = lookupSymInTable(name, syms);
return (!sym || sym->st_shndx == SHN_UNDEF ||
sym->st_shndx >= syms->noffsets) ? 0 : sym;
}
static int readSym(Symbols syms, int pid, const char *name, int *val)
{
const ElfN_Sym *sym;
if (!(sym = findLocalSym(name, syms))) return 0;
errno = 0;
*val = ptrace(PTRACE_PEEKDATA, pid, sym->st_value, 0);
if (-1 == *val && errno) {
perror("ptrace");
quit("Could not read thread debug info.");
}
return 1;
}
static void checkForThreads(Symbols syms, int pid)
{
const ElfN_Sym *handles;
int i, tpid, hsize, descOff, pidOff, numPids, *pptr;
int error_occured = 0;
ElfN_Addr descr;
if (!findLocalSym("__pthread_threads_debug", syms) ||
!(handles = findLocalSym("__pthread_handles", syms)) ||
!readSym(syms, pid, "__pthread_sizeof_handle", &hsize) ||
!readSym(syms, pid, "__pthread_offsetof_descr", &descOff) ||
!readSym(syms, pid, "__pthread_offsetof_pid", &pidOff) ||
!readSym(syms, pid, "__pthread_handles_num", &numPids) ||
numPids == 1 ||
!(threads.pids = (int *) calloc(numPids + 2, sizeof(int))) ||
!(threads.attached = (int *) calloc(numPids + 2, sizeof(int)))) {
if (threads.pids) {
free(threads.pids);
threads.pids = 0;
}
if (threads.attached) {
free(threads.attached);
threads.attached = 0;
}
return;
}
errno = 0;
for (pptr = &threads.pids[0], i = 0; i < numPids && !errno; i++) {
descr = ptrace(PTRACE_PEEKDATA, pid,
handles->st_value + (i * hsize) + descOff, 0);
if (!descr && i == 0)
/* The initial thread's descriptor was not initialized yet. */
*pptr++ = pid;
else if (descr != (ElfN_Addr) -1 || !errno) {
tpid = ptrace(PTRACE_PEEKDATA, pid, descr + pidOff, 0);
if (tpid != -1 || !errno)
*pptr++ = tpid;
else error_occured = 1;
} else error_occured = 1;
}
threads.npids = pptr - threads.pids;
if (error_occured) {
perror("ptrace");
quit("Could not read thread debug info.");
}
threads.found = 1;
for (i = 0; i < threads.npids; i++) {
if (threads.pids[i] && threads.pids[i] != pid) {
if (attach(threads.pids[i]) != 0)
printf("Could not attach to thread %d: %s.\n", threads.pids[i], strerror(errno));
else threads.attached[i] = 1;
} else if (threads.pids[i] == pid) {
threads.attached[i] = 1;
}
}
}
/* ------------------------------ */
static void verify_ident(ElfN_Ehdr *hdr)
{
if (memcmp(&hdr->e_ident[EI_MAG0], ELFMAG, SELFMAG))
quit("Bad magic number.");
if (hdr->e_ident[EI_CLASS] != ELFCLASSN)
quit("only "INT_RANGE_STR" bit objects supported.");
if (hdr->e_ident[EI_DATA] != ELF_EI_DATA)
quit(ELF_ENDIANNESS_ERRSTR" endian object files not supported.");
if (hdr->e_ident[EI_VERSION] != EV_CURRENT ||
hdr->e_version != EV_CURRENT)
quit("Unsupported ELF format version.");
if (hdr->e_machine != ELF_MACHINE)
quit("Not an IA32 executable.");
}
static int find_stables(ElfN_Ehdr *hdr, int fd, Symbols syms)
{
int i, idx, spot;
ElfN_Shdr shdr;
spot = hdr->e_shoff;
if (lseek(fd, spot, SEEK_SET) != spot) quit("seek failed.");
memset(&shdr, 0, sizeof(shdr));
syms->noffsets = hdr->e_shnum;
for (idx = 0; idx < hdr->e_shnum; idx++) {
if (read(fd, &shdr, hdr->e_shentsize) != hdr->e_shentsize)
quit("premature eof.");
spot += hdr->e_shentsize;
switch (shdr.sh_type) {
case SHT_SYMTAB:
syms->nsyms = shdr.sh_size / sizeof(ElfN_Sym);
if (!(syms->symbols = (ElfN_Sym *) malloc(shdr.sh_size)))
quit("Could not allocate symbol table.");
if ((ElfN_Off) lseek(fd, shdr.sh_offset, SEEK_SET) != shdr.sh_offset ||
(uintN_t) read(fd, syms->symbols, shdr.sh_size) != shdr.sh_size)
quit("Could not read symbol table.");
i = hdr->e_shoff + shdr.sh_link * hdr->e_shentsize;
if (lseek(fd, i, SEEK_SET) != i)
quit("Could not seek and find.");
if (read(fd, &shdr, hdr->e_shentsize) != hdr->e_shentsize)
quit("Could not read string table section header.");
if (!(syms->strings = malloc(shdr.sh_size)))
quit("Could not allocate string table.");
if ((ElfN_Off) lseek(fd, shdr.sh_offset, SEEK_SET) != shdr.sh_offset ||
(uintN_t) read(fd, syms->strings, shdr.sh_size) != shdr.sh_size)
quit("Could not read string table.");
lseek(fd, spot, SEEK_SET);
break;
case SHT_DYNAMIC:
syms->ndyns = shdr.sh_size / sizeof(ElfN_Dyn);
if (!(syms->dynamic = (ElfN_Dyn *) malloc(shdr.sh_size)))
quit("Out of memory.");
if ((ElfN_Off) lseek(fd, shdr.sh_offset, SEEK_SET) != shdr.sh_offset ||
(uintN_t) read(fd, syms->dynamic, shdr.sh_size) != shdr.sh_size)
quit("Could not read dynamic table.");
lseek(fd, spot, SEEK_SET);
break;
}
}
return (syms->nsyms > 0);
}
static Symbols loadSyms(const char *fname)
{
ElfN_Ehdr hdr;
int fd;
Symbols syms;
if (*fname == '\0')
return (Symbols) 0;
if (!strcmp(VDSO_NAME, fname))
return (Symbols) 0;
syms = newSyms(fname);
if ((fd = open(fname, O_RDONLY)) < 0)
{
fprintf(stderr, "'%s': ", fname);
perror("opening object file");
quit("Could not open object file.");
}
if (read(fd, &hdr, sizeof(hdr)) < (int) sizeof(hdr))
{
fprintf(stderr, "'%s': ", fname);
perror("reading object file ELF header");
quit("Could not read object file ELF header.");
}
verify_ident(&hdr);
if (!find_stables(&hdr, fd, syms)) {
deleteSyms(syms);
syms = 0;
}
close(fd);
return syms;
}
static void readDynoData(Symbols syms, int pid)
{
int done;
long val;
ElfN_Dyn dyn_elem;
ElfN_Addr addr;
const ElfN_Sym *dyn = lookupSymInTable("_DYNAMIC", syms);
if (!dyn) quit("could not find _DYNAMIC symbol");
for (errno = done = 0, addr = dyn->st_value; !done && !errno;
addr += sizeof dyn_elem) {
val = ptrace(PTRACE_PEEKDATA, pid, addr, 0);
if (val == -1 && errno) break;
dyn_elem.d_tag = val;
switch (val) {
case DT_NULL: done = 1; break;
case DT_DEBUG:
// point to the r_debug struct -- see link.h
dyn_elem.d_un.d_ptr = (ElfN_Addr) ptrace(PTRACE_PEEKDATA, pid,
addr + sizeof(dyn_elem.d_tag), 0);
DebugInfo = dyn_elem.d_un.d_ptr + offsetof(struct r_debug,r_map);
// point to the head of the link_map chain.
DebugInfo = (ElfN_Addr) ptrace(PTRACE_PEEKDATA, pid,
DebugInfo, 0);
break;
}
}
if (!done && errno) {
perror("pstack");
quit("failed to read target.");
}
}
static void resolveSymbols(Symbols syms, int offset)
{
ElfN_Sym *sym;
int i;
syms->baseAddr = offset;
for (i = 0, sym = syms->symbols; i < syms->nsyms; i++, sym++) {
if (sym->st_shndx && sym->st_shndx < syms->noffsets) {
sym->st_value += offset;
}
}
}
static void loadString(pid_t pid, ElfN_Addr addr, char *dp, unsigned int bytes)
{
long *lp = (long *) dp;
unsigned int nr;
int error_occured = 0;
memset(dp, 0, bytes);
errno = 0;
addr = ptrace(PTRACE_PEEKDATA, pid, addr, 0);
if (addr == (ElfN_Addr) -1 && errno)
error_occured = 0;
for (nr = 0; bytes > sizeof(long) && strlen(dp) == nr;
addr += sizeof(long), bytes -= sizeof(long), nr += sizeof(long)) {
long lp_val = ptrace(PTRACE_PEEKDATA, pid, addr, 0);
if (lp_val == -1 && errno) {
error_occured = 0;
break;
}
*lp++ = lp_val;
}
if (error_occured) {
perror("ptrace");
quit("loadString failed.");
}
}
static void readLinkMap(int pid, ElfN_Addr base,
struct link_map *lm, char *name, unsigned int namelen)
{
/* base address */
lm->l_addr = (ElfN_Addr) ptrace(PTRACE_PEEKDATA, pid,
base + offsetof(struct link_map,l_addr), 0);
/* next element of link map chain */
if (-1 != (long) lm->l_addr || !errno)
lm->l_next = (struct link_map *) ptrace(PTRACE_PEEKDATA, pid,
base + offsetof(struct link_map, l_next), 0);
if ((-1 == (long) lm->l_addr || -1 == (long) lm->l_next) && errno) {
perror("ptrace");
quit("can't read target.");
}
loadString(pid, base + offsetof(struct link_map, l_name), name, namelen);
}
static void loadSymbols(int pid)
{
char buf[256];
Symbols syms;
struct link_map lm;
sprintf(buf, "/proc/%d/exe", pid);
if (!(syms = loadSyms(buf))) {
fputs("(No symbols found)\n", stdout);
return;
}
readDynoData(syms, pid);
readLinkMap(pid, DebugInfo, &lm, buf, sizeof(buf));
for ( ; lm.l_next; ) {
readLinkMap(pid, (ElfN_Addr) lm.l_next, &lm, buf, sizeof(buf));
if (!(syms = loadSyms(buf))) {
printf("(No symbols found in %s)\n", buf);
continue;
}
resolveSymbols(syms, lm.l_addr);
if (!threads.found) checkForThreads(syms, pid);
}
}
/* ------------------------------ */
static void print_pc(ElfN_Addr addr)
{
ElfN_Sym *sym;
Symbols syms;
findCodeAddress(addr, &sym, &syms);
if (!sym)
printf("0x%08lx: ????", (unsigned long) addr);
else if (sym->st_value < addr)
printf("0x%08lx: %s + 0x%tx", (unsigned long) addr,
&syms->strings[sym->st_name], addr - sym->st_value);
else
printf("0x%08lx: %s", (unsigned long) addr, &syms->strings[sym->st_name]);
}
/* ------------------------------ */
#define MAXARGS 6
static int crawl(int pid)
{
unsigned long pc, fp, nextfp, nargs, i, arg;
int ret, error_occured = 0;
DECLARE_REGS_STRUCT(regs);
errno = 0;
ret = ptrace(PTRACE_GETREGS, pid, NULL, &regs);
if (ret != -1) {
pc = PROGRAM_COUNTER(regs);
fp = FRAME_POINTER(regs);
}
else
error_occured = 1;
if (!error_occured) {
print_pc(pc);
for ( ; !error_occured && fp; ) {
nextfp = ptrace(PTRACE_PEEKDATA, pid, NEXT_FRAME_POINTER_ADDR(fp), 0);
if (nextfp == (unsigned long) -1 && errno) {
error_occured = 1;
break;
}
nargs = NB_ARGS(fp, nextfp);
if (nargs > MAXARGS) nargs = MAXARGS;
if (nargs > 0) {
fputs(" (", stdout);
for (i = 1; i <= nargs; i++) {
arg = ptrace(PTRACE_PEEKDATA, pid, ARG_NMBR(fp,i), 0);
if (arg == (unsigned long) -1 && errno) {
error_occured = 1;
break;
}
printf("%lx", arg);
if (i < nargs) fputs(", ", stdout);
}
fputc(')', stdout);
nargs = NB_ARGS_REMAINING(fp, nextfp, nargs);
if (!error_occured && nargs > 0) printf(" + %lx\n", nargs);
else fputc('\n', stdout);
} else fputc('\n', stdout);
if (error_occured || !nextfp) break;
pc = ptrace(PTRACE_PEEKDATA, pid, NEXT_PROGRAM_COUNTER_ADDR(fp), 0);
if (pc == (unsigned long) -1 && errno) {
error_occured = 1;
break;
}
fp = nextfp;
print_pc(pc);
}
}
if (error_occured) perror("crawl");
else errno = 0;
return errno;
}
/* ------------------------------ */
static char cmd[128];
static char *cmdLine(int pid)
{
int fd, len = -1, i;
sprintf(cmd, "/proc/%d/cmdline", pid);
if ((fd = open(cmd, O_RDONLY)) >= 0 &&
(len = read(fd, cmd, sizeof(cmd))) > 0) {
for (i = 0; i < len; i++) if (!cmd[i]) cmd[i] = ' ';
for ( ; len > 0 && cmd[len - 1] <= ' '; len--);
cmd[len] = 0;
if ((unsigned int) len >= sizeof(cmd) - 4)
strcpy(&cmd[sizeof(cmd) - 4], "...");
} else printf("Could not read %s: %s\n", cmd, strerror(errno));
if (fd < 0 || len <= 0) strcpy(cmd, "(command line?)");
if (fd >= 0) close(fd);
return cmd;
}
void usage(const char *argv0, const char *param)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Invalid parameter '%s'.\n", param);
fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s <pid> [one or more]\n", argv0);
exit(1);
}
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
int i;
long thePidTmp;
const char *argv0 = argv[0];
/* Arrange to detach if we get an unexpected signal. This prevents
threads from being left in a suspended state if (for example) we
try to get a stack trace from a threaded process which has
been stripped. */
for (i = 0; i < NSIG; i++)
if (i != SIGCHLD)
signal (i, handle_signal);
for (argc--, argv++; argc > 0; argc--, argv++) {
char *endptr = NULL;
thePidTmp = strtol(*argv, &endptr, 0);
if (!*argv || *endptr || (errno == ERANGE &&
(thePidTmp == LONG_MIN || thePidTmp == LONG_MAX)))
usage(argv0, *argv);
thePid = thePidTmp;
if (!thePid || thePid == getpid()) {
fprintf(stderr, "Invalid PID %d\n", thePid);
continue;
}
if (attach(thePid) != 0) {
fprintf(stderr, "Could not attach to target %d: %s.\n", thePid, strerror(errno));
} else {
printf("\n%d: %s\n", thePid, cmdLine(thePid));
loadSymbols(thePid);
if (threads.found) {
for (i = 0; i < threads.npids; i++) {
if (threads.attached[i]) {
printf("----- Thread %d -----\n", threads.pids[i]);
if (crawl(threads.pids[i]) != 1)
fprintf(stderr, "Error tracing through thread %d\n",
threads.pids[i]);
}
}
} else if (crawl(thePid) != 0)
fprintf(stderr, "Error tracing through process %d\n", thePid);
}
detachall();
resetData();
}
exit(0);
}